How the Automated Bus Works: LiDARs, radars, cameras, and more

This blog post explores ADASTEC's advanced automated driving software platform, highlighting its sensor fusion technology's role in transforming automated bus transportation.

October 3, 2023

The Key Technologies Behind ADASTEC SAE L4 Automated Bus

The SAE Level-4 Automated Driving Software Platform offers significant advantages in public transport. Thanks to the high degree of automation, these buses can operate in specific geographical areas and under predetermined conditions without human intervention. This level of autonomy provides numerous benefits, including enhanced safety through advanced sensor systems and redundancy mechanisms. L4 Automated Buses can optimize traffic flow, reduce congestion, and increase efficiency. ADASTEC's automated bus also prioritizes accessibility and features to accommodate passengers with different needs.  

Moreover, the Karsan e-Atak bus covers the arrangements made to enable disabled passengers to travel accessible and comfortably by overcoming physical barriers such as entering and exiting the bus, accessing the interior, and seating arrangements. For passengers and disabled passengers to have an accessible automated bus experience, ADASTEC's automated bus provides passengers with a unique experience with its kneeling feature in compliance with E.U. Regulations. In addition, L4 Automated Bus contributes to a sustainable and environmentally friendly transportation ecosystem through automated buses, electric vehicles, and hybrid vehicles. Integrating the SAE Level-4 Automated Driving Software Platform has enormous potential to revolutionize public transport and create a safer, more efficient, and inclusive mobility experience for passengers.

How do all the sensors work together?

The Autonomous Vehicle employs sensor fusion for detection while navigating city streets. "" uses multi-mode signals for RGB and thermal camera images, LiDAR points, Radar points, ultrasonic sensors, and H.D. map information. As a result, it detects all relevant traffic participants and objects accurately, robustly, and in real-time.  

The sensor suite is designed as a multi-object that can be seen and detected by at least two sensor modalities. A fault-tolerant, redundant, and robust system can be established using five sensor sources. 

The system can detect and classify objects around the vehicle in a 360-degree view. It determines the positions of objects and estimates their speed and direction. We ensure the output of multiple sensors (LiDAR, RGB Camera, and Thermal Cameras) for increased sensitivity in detecting objects and scene perception. In addition, the detection system can detect traffic lights and traffic signs. Thus, the vehicle can travel by following the rules in flowing traffic.

How do these systems function together?

Sensor fusion technology plays a crucial role in operating L4 automated buses, especially when integrating LiDAR (Light Detection and Range Shifting), RGB cameras, RADAR, and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). 

By combining data from these sensors, automated buses can comprehensively and accurately understand their environment. LiDAR sensors detect obstacles, pedestrians, and other traffic participants in extraordinary detail by creating a precise 3D map of the environment. 

Cameras provide visual information that enables the recognition of road signs, traffic lights, and visual cues. GNSS systems allow buses to navigate predefined routes, providing accurate positioning and localization data. Through sensor fusion techniques, the strengths of each sensor can be exploited, its limitations can be compensated, and a holistic perception of the environment can be achieved. This combination of LiDAR, camera, and GNSS data enables the L4 Automated Buses to make informed decisions in real-time, providing reliable and safe autonomous operation on the road.

A.V. processes sensor data, localization information, and map data for decision-making. A.V. uses sensor fusion to interpret data and predict the behavior of other road users and potential hazards. 

Driving Innovation in Global Public Transit with Automated Bus Technology

ADASTEC Corp., a pioneer in autonomous and connected public transport vehicles, is celebrated for its proprietary software platform,, and its advanced sensor stack. These technologies empower electric public transit buses, like the KARSAN e-Atak, to reach SAE Level 4 autonomy. ADASTEC has a significant global presence, partnering with bus OEMs worldwide, and operates in the U.S., Europe, Asia, and Australia/Oceania. Headquartered in Michigan, USA, the company also has an R&D office in Istanbul, Turkey, and has offices in Brabant, the Netherlands, and Stockholm, Sweden. A testament to its pioneering spirit, ADASTEC deployed Europe's first automated bus in Stavanger, Norway, and brought this innovation to the U.S. at Michigan State University.

Are you interested in leading-edge automated bus technology for your city? To learn more about ADASTEC's transformative solutions or to explore bringing our automated bus to your region, please reach out to us. We are keen to collaborate with bus OEMs and public authorities committed to advancing public transportation.

Ziya Oğuzhan Çevik

Oğuzhan Çevik is a Product and Project Engineer at ADASTEC with a Bachelor's degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from MEF University. His academic prowess and practical expertise drive innovation at ADASTEC.